Cultivating Clean Air: Bio-Refineries as a Sustainable Solution to Pakistan’s Smog Crisis

Cultivating Clean Air: Bio-Refineries as a Sustainable Solution to Pakistan's Smog Crisis

Prof. Dr. Muhammad Suleman Tahir

Pakistan’s lush agricultural landscapes, celebrated for their productivity, are now grappling with a formidable challenge that transcends the vibrant green fields—the alarming issue of agricultural waste and its significant contribution to the pervasive problem of smog. This intricate problem is rooted in a combination of traditional farming practices, the impacts of climate change, and a lack of sustainable waste management strategies. As Pakistan contends with the menace of smog, driven by the burning of agricultural waste, the need for innovative and sustainable solutions becomes increasingly urgent, revealing a crisis at the crossroads of pollution and climate change.

Farmers in Pakistan, constrained by limited alternatives and often lacking awareness about sustainable practices, resort to the age-old method of burning agricultural waste for disposal. The residue from crops such as sugarcane, wheat, and rice, when set ablaze, releases a harmful cocktail of pollutants into the atmosphere. Compounds like cellulose and cyclic compounds significantly contribute to the formation of smog—a noxious blend of smoke and fog that poses a severe threat to air quality and public health. The consequences of this practice extend beyond smog formation, encompassing soil degradation, loss of valuable nutrients, and posing health risks to farmers directly exposed to the smoke and particulate matter.

Quantifying the exact amount of agricultural waste in Pakistan is a challenging task due to the diverse nature of farming practices and variability in crop yields. However, estimates suggest that millions of tons of agri-waste are generated annually. For instance, wheat straw production alone is estimated to be in the range of 35-40 million tons per year, significantly contributing to the overall agricultural waste burden.

The visible manifestation of air pollution, smog, has become a major environmental concern in Pakistan, particularly in urban and industrial areas. The toxic brew of vehicular emissions, industrial pollutants, and burning agricultural waste hangs heavily in the air. Smog not only reduces visibility but also has serious health implications, causing respiratory issues, cardiovascular problems, and other ailments.

Addressing smog-related problems lies in the concept of bio-refineries—facilities strategically designed to convert biomass into a spectrum of valuable products. This approach aims to transform agricultural waste into valuable resources, providing farmers with economically viable alternatives to the detrimental practice of burning crop residues. Bio-refineries operate on a chemical solution that harnesses the potential of cellulose and cyclic compounds present in agricultural waste. Advanced technologies can process these compounds to create products like chipboards and biomaterials, mitigating the smog crisis and fostering a sustainable and circular economy.

Denmark’s Dong Energy operates a bio-refinery that transforms agricultural residues, such as straw, into bioethanol. This not only reduces the carbon footprint by utilizing waste materials but also contributes to economic prosperity by creating a sustainable source of biofuel. Abengoa operates a bioenergy plant in Hugoton, Kansas, USA, that converts agricultural residues, including corn stover, into cellulosic ethanol. Clariant’s Sunliquid biorefinery in Straubing, Germany, focuses on converting agricultural residues, such as wheat straw and corn stover, into advanced biofuels. Raízen, a Brazilian company, operates biorefineries that produce bioethanol from sugarcane. UPM Biofuels in Finland focuses on producing advanced biofuels from wood-based feedstock. Aemetis operates an advanced bio-refinery in California, USA, producing low-carbon advanced biofuels from agricultural and forest waste. Sappi’s Ngodwana Energy Bio-refinery in South Africa utilizes biomass from the forestry industry to produce energy. By utilizing a renewable resource, these bio-refineries contribute to mitigating climate change and promoting economic prosperity through the creation of jobs in the sugarcane industry and the production of a cleaner alternative to traditional fuels.  

In tandem with the chemical approach, a mechanical solution emerges—the utilization of compressed machines. These machines can convert large volumes of agricultural waste into compact forms, facilitating easier handling and repurposing. The compressed residue can serve as a clean and efficient fuel source, departing from the traditional practice of burning. Compressing technology not only mitigates the immediate concern of smog but also presents a shift towards a more sustainable and environmentally friendly method. The use of compressed agricultural waste as fuel reduces reliance on fossil fuels, concurrently curbing the emission of harmful pollutants contributing to the smog crisis.

To address the root cause of the smog crisis in Pakistan, there is an imperative need to promote the establishment of regional bio-refineries. Presently, farmers view burning as their only viable option for waste disposal. Government initiatives and collaborations with the private sector can play a pivotal role in supporting the setup of bio-refineries, providing farmers with alternatives that address the waste issue and contribute positively to their livelihoods.

Educating farmers about the benefits of bio-refineries and equipping them with the necessary tools and resources are integral steps towards a sustainable future. This transition requires a collective effort involving policymakers, agricultural experts, and the farming community. Creating awareness about the long-term advantages of adopting bio-refinery practices is crucial to breaking the cycle of traditional burning and ushering in a more sustainable and eco-friendly ecosystem.

Faced with the pressing issue of agriculture waste and smog, Pakistan demands immediate attention and concerted efforts. The adoption of bio-refineries, coupled with awareness campaigns and policy support, holds the key to not only mitigating immediate problems but also transforming agricultural waste into valuable resources, ensuring a healthier and sustainable future for the country. Factual data underscores the urgency of this issue, emphasizing the need for collaborative and impactful solutions on both local and national scales.

It is requested to publish this article. Cooperation in this regard would be highly appreciated.

Prof. Dr. Muhammad Suleman Tahir

Former Vice Chancellor

Khwaja Fareed University of Engineering and Information Technology

Rahim Yar Khan, Pakistan